For the “Back Fact Check,” the Bertelsmann Stiftung has taken a close look at the current treatment situation. The Institute for Applied Health Research (Institut für angewandte Gesundheitsforschung – InGef) reviewed anonymized treatment data from more than seven million insured patients from 70 company health insurance funds from 2009 to 2015, and analyzed the back pain-related physician visits, conservative outpatient treatment as well as the application of diagnostic imaging. The central question examined was to what degree treatment is compliant with the guidelines. In addition, the “Back Fact Check” looked at whether patients’ expectations influence the frequency of imaging. To explore this issue further, the Bertelsmann Stiftung had a representative survey conducted on the predominant views regarding back pain in general, and on treatment in specific cases.